A History of the History of Shiny Blue Ducks (aka apologetics) via historical argumentation
I. From Paul to Isidore
1 Cor. 15
Polycarp-Pupil of John the Apostle (70-156)
“But He who raised Him up from the dead WILL raise up us also”
The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, Chapter II, An Exhortation to Virtue
Ignatius-Pupil of John the Apostle (67-110)
“He was also truly raised from the dead, His Father quickening Him, even as after the same manner His Father WILL SO raise up us who believe in Him by Christ Jesus”
The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, Chapter IX
Irenaeus – Pupil of Polycarp of Lyons (130-202)
“The power and glory of God shine forth in the weakness of human flesh, as he will render our body a participator of the resurrection and of immortality, although He has formed it from the dust of the earth; He WILL ALSO bestow upon it the enjoyment of immortality, just as He grants it this short life in common with the soul”
Against Heresies, Book V, Chapter III
Hippolytus of Rome – Pupil of Irenaeus (170-236)
“Without protest, Christ endured his passion, he submitted to death and revealed his resurrection. In all these ways he offered his own manhood as the first fruits of our race to keep us from losing heart when suffering comes our way, and to make us look forward to receiving the same reward as he did, since we know that we possess the same humanity.
When we have come to know the true God, both our bodies and our souls will be immortal and incorruptible.”
On the Refutation of All Heresies, Chapter X, 33-34,
“The resurrection of the dead is the Christian’s trust.”
On The Resurrection of the Flesh
John Chrysostom (347-407)
“The doctrine of the Resurrection, too, was lame among them: for some of them had no strong belief that there is any resurrection of bodies, having still on them the disease of Grecian foolishness. For indeed all these things were the progeny of the madness which belongs to Heathen Philosophy, and she was the mother of all mischief. Hence, likewise, they had become divided; in this respect also having learned of the philosophers. For these latter were no less at mutual variance, always, through love of rule and vain glory contradicting one another’s opinions, and bent upon making some new discovery in addition to all that was before. And the cause of this was, their having begun to trust themselves to reasonings”
First Epistle Of St. Paul The Apostle, To The Corinthians, Argument 2
“Is it at this day a thing incredible, that the Body of the Lord rose again from the sepulchre?”
Homilies on the Gospels, Sermon LXVI.
Isidore, Bishop of Seville (560-636)
Etymologies – History must be an eyewitness account.
Historical argumentation and research died. The authority of the church is paramount.
II. The Renaissance-The Rise of Historical Consciousness
“The Protestant Reformation spurred the development of the science of history by turning attention to the Patristic age in order to accentuate the Roman Catholic church’s departures from the faith of the fathers.”
W.L. Craig p.161, Reasonable Faith
A. Important Figures in the development of historical argument.
1. Juan Luis Vives (1543) – began historical reasons for the credibility of Scripture.
2. Phillipe de Mornay (1581) – Appeals to history to demonstrate Christ rose.
3. Hugo Grotius (1627)
4. John Locke (1632-1704) – 1695, The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures
5. Charles Leslie (1697) – Short and Easie Method with the Deists; The Historical Proof of the Matters of Fact demonstrate Christianity is true.
6. Simon Greenleaf (1783-1853) – The Testimony of the Evangelists
III. The Rise of Skepticism
David Hume (1711-1776) -An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
“A miracle is a violation of the laws of nature; and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws, the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is as entire as any argument from experience can possibly be imagined.”
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) The Christian Faith, in this he developed what has been come to be know as positive theology. The essence of religion is experience. Kant missed the point of real live religion. The essence of religion lies in our sense of absolute dependence. Jesus was not the God-man but a man that walked so closely with God that you could say God dwelled in him.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)